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 MyMason's Case Studies

 Chimneys and Brickwork Case Studies

    Chimney Repair

    Chimney Repair, Articulated Boom

    Custom Scaffold, Chimney Repair

    Lower-Chimney's Removal, Wall Restructuring

    Chimney Flue Replacement

    Concrete Chimney Cap as per Building Code

    Chimney - Sloped Side, Repair

    Chimney - Wobbly Chimney

    Brick Pillar

    Brick Garage Pillar Repair

    Window's Lintel Installation

    Brick Sill Creates Wall Damage

    Brick-to-Stone Window Sill Replacement

    Brick Retaining Wall Rebuild

 
 Concrete Case Studies

    Broken Concrete Step

    Basement Window, Concrete Cut

    Basement Window, Concrete cut-out

    Concrete Walkway, Landing

    Concrete Stairs and Landing

    Concrete Stairs and Landing

    Concrete Countertop

 
 Stone Work Case Studies

    Stone Wall Rebuild

    Granite Resurfacing of Concrete Stairs

    Stone Step Rebuild

    Stone Stair Rebuild - in Winter

    Stone replaces Brick Door Sill

    Stone Retaining Wall Rebuild

    Dry-Stack Retaining Wall Rebuild

    Dry-Stack Stone Retaining Wall

    Flagstone Patio Rebuild, Expansion

    FlagStone Step Repair

    Stone Replacement

    New Interlocking Stone Walkway

    Re-setting Interlocking Walkway

    Tile Installation

 
 Algonquin College/MyMason Case Studies

    Cold Weather Masonry Rules

    Salt and Concrete Testing

    Concrete Curing Stress Tests

    Concrete and Rebar Stress Tests

 
 Parging Case Studies

    Parging, Cement Board

    Parging Examples & Techniques

 
 Fireplace Case Studies

    Fireplace Surround - Old Wood to New Wood Insert

    Fireplace Fire Brick Replacement

    Fireplace Surround - Natural Stone

    Electric, Natural Stone Fireplace

    Fireplace Hearth Replacement

    Stone Fireplace

    Cultured Stone Fireplace & New Framing

    Cultured Stone Fireplace Surround

    TV Mounted on Stone Fireplace

    Restructuring Fireplace: Wood to Gas

    Drywall to Stone Fireplace

    3-sided fireplace: Cultured Stone

    Fireplace Removal, Damper Removal
 

 

    Case Study: Cold Weather Masonry: The Facts

For your information, we provide information from various sources.

 

The National Concrete Masonry Association
(USA)

"Mortar and Grout Performance
Hydration and strength development in mortar and grout generally occurs at temperatures above 40 F (4.4 degrees Celcius) and only when sufficient water is available. However, masonry construction may proceed when temperatures are below 40oF (4.4 C) provided cold weather construction and protection requirements are followed as described by the Specification for Masonry Structures, ACI 530.1-02/ASCE 6-02/TMS 602-02. (Reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee, 2002.).

Mortars and grouts mixed at low temperatures have longer setting and hardening times, and lower early strength than those mixed at normal temperatures. However, mortars and grouts produced with heated materials exhibit performance characteristics identical to those produced during warm weather."

Maintain mortar temperature above freezing until used in masonry. Heat grout aggregates and mixing water to produce grout temperatures between 70 and 120 F (21.1 and 48.9 degrees Celcius). Maintain grout temperature above 70oF (21.1oC) at time of grout placement.

Admixtures
The purpose of an accelerating type of admixture is to hasten the hydration of the portland cement in mortar or grout. However, admixtures containing chlorides in excess of 0.2% chloride ions are not permitted to be used in mortar (ref. 3) due to corrosion of embedded metals and contribution to efflorescence. While specifically not addressed by the Specification, the use of chloride admixtures in grout is generally discouraged. Noncloride accelerators are available but they must be used in addition to cold weather procedures and not as a replacement for them. Antifreezes are not recommended for use in mortars and are prohibited for use in grouts.

 

 

For more information on masonry, techniques and accepted practices:

The Specification for Masonry Structures, ACI 530.1-02/ASCE 6-02/TMS 602-02.
(Reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee, 2002.).
civilwares.free.fr/ACI/MCP04/5301_02.pdf

 

 

The Holcim Cement and Concrete Company:
(which manufactures much of the bagged cement used in sites around Ottawa.)

"Masonry work can be done at temperatures below freezing provided the materials (including cement), and the resulting mortar from mixing the materials and the work area is above 5 degrees Celcius.

The masonry work area will need to be protected and heated (usually tarped in) to keep the masonry work above 5 degrees Celcius for a period of 24 hours at least.

If the masonry cement or mortar are below 5C then hydration of the cement does not occur and the mortar will be weaker and likely fail."

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

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This page last modified: January 5 2010